Unit Two: First Impressions
The first century of Spanish colonization began with great energy and optimism on the part of the Spanish. But the gold never materialized in any worthwhile quantity, the way to the ocean was barred by impassable geography, and hostile tribes pressed in from every side. The Pueblos accepted missionaries, but refused to set aside their traditional practices in favor of the exclusive practice of Christianity that the priests demanded. The Spanish also brought taxes and disease, and were unable to help much against raiders.
In 1680, the Pueblos rose up and drove the Spanish from their colonies. The Spanish fled to the Rio Grande at El Paso, accompanied by certain Piro and Isleta people, and waited there for help eleven years before securing enough forces to recapture New Mexico. For both the colonists and the pueblos, this was a consuming catastrophe that affected several generations. In Europe, it was not noted at all. The Coronelli map does not even show El Paso del Norte, although it was the only inhabited European settlement in the province at that time.
In completing this lesson, students will:
Identify formative events in early relations between Spanish and Native Americans. Discuss how they led to the pueblo revolt.
Investigate similarities and differences between Spanish and Native American conceptions of land use and religion.
Discuss how different perspectives on land use and religion led to the Pueblo Revolt.
Compile and compare statistical information about historic maps to reveal the cultural assumptions of particular times and places.
Write a descriptive paragraph about these findings.
Read and contrast accounts written by Spanish explorers, clergy, and colonists.
Illustrate differences identified in the previous exercises through role-play negotiation.
custodio: The head of the custodia, an administrative unit. The Custodia de la conversion de San Pablo included all the missions of New Mexico. Fr. Alonso de Benavides was the first custodio.
alcalde: An official under the Spanish system of government. The alcalde was both mayor and judge of a town.
cabildo: Town council or municipal government; also the building in which
encomienda: a grant of Indian labor to Spanish colonists.
maese de campo: Maestro de Campo was a rank created in 1534 by the Emperor Carlos V, inferior in rank only to the Capitán General and acted as a chief of staff.
sargento mayor : Sargento Mayor (Sergeant Major) was a rank immediately below that of Maestro de Campo in the Spanish tercios of the 16th and 17th centuries. He took care of the tactical training, security and lodging of the troops of the tercio. Also he transmitted the orders of the Maestre de Campo or the Capitán General to the inferior officers.
ranchería: an encampment of nomadic Indians, such as Comanche or Apache.
Activity I: Learning from Historic Maps
The teacher can model how historians interpret and learn from primary source maps by interpreting the seventeenth-century map.
Look at the Coronelli map, particularly at the area of New Mexico, and list everything you see. Teachers and students may find it useful to toggle the Google map legend on/off in order to get contemporary names for locations.
Have students complete a map analysis worksheet.
Questions to consider for class discussion include:
Identify use of titles and names, symbols, ornaments, illustrations and captions, scale, and legend.
How is information organized? Consider use of capitals, bolding, color
How are places named? Can you recognize the names (click overview tab for modern name)? What language is it in?
Zoom out, then discuss what the boundaries of New Mexico are? What country borders New Mexico?
Who made the map and why was it made (check the entry for 1661-1662 in the timeline below the map)? Why would authorship matter?
This map is notable partly because the year it was published, the only Spanish settlement was at El Paso, depicted as a mere landmark on Coronelli's map. Ask students why they think Coronelli's map does not show the founding of El Paso after the Pueblo Revolt. Ask what it says about the flow of communication between New Spain and Europe.
Activity II: Comparing Historic Maps
Ask the students to look at these two maps (links below), and read the blurb beneath each.
Enrique Martinez: Map of New Mexico Colony : 1602
Vincenzo Maria Coronelli: America Settentrionale : 1688
The teacher may do this with the whole class by using a single computer and digital projector or may download, print and distribute handouts (see Lesson Plans homepage for more details).
Students should work in small groups to create charts (pie charts or bar graphs) to analyze the following questions, as they examine the maps.
How many pueblos appear on Martinez' map in 1602?
How many other tribes?
How many Spanish towns?
How many missions appear on the 1688 map?
How many pueblos?
How many Spanish towns independent of missions?
How many other tribes?
As a class, discuss the following:
How much of the what is now the U.S. and Mexico appears in each map?
What are the blank spaces?
Looking at Martinez' 1602 map, are the blank spaces occupied? Who is occupying them? (hint: look at the Coronelli map)
What are some differences between a map made by someone who worked with the original explorers (Martinez) and a map made by reading written accounts (Coronelli)?
What does Martinez's map tell about the settlement of New Mexico in the first decade?
What does Coronelli's map tell about the settlement in the 1600s?
What similarities and differences do you notice in terms of scale (area shown), place names, and the use and meaning of symbols?
Which map do you think is more accurate? Why?
Individually, students should write a brief comparative paragraph about these two maps of New Mexico for later reference in the activity. Students might also construct a chart before they write their paragraph; they could create their own list of items to compare and then fill in the information.
Activity III: Comparing Narratives
Students read the descriptions for the Piro provinces (the pueblo marked Piro on Coronelli's map and the two pueblos marked Socorro & Nueva Sevilla on the Martinez map), comparing the earlier descriptions used by Coronelli, versus the later descriptions from Oñate, on the Martinez Map.
Discuss as a class: What is the difference between the reaction of the Piro to the coming of Gallegos, with the Chamuscado mission in 1581, versus the coming of Oñate nearly 20 years later? Why do you think the two parties has such a different experience? What does this say about the way information traveled through New Mexico during this time?
Compare the descriptions of Gallegos' encounter with the Galisteo pueblo on the Coronelli map with Oñate's description of Crossing the Rio Grande on the Martinez map. Read the entries in the timeline on the page below the map for all the dates between 1580- 1610.
Discuss as a class: What are the concerns of the Chamuscado party in Galisteo? What were the concerns of the Oñate party? What did the Spanish expect from the Pueblo people? Can you imagine what the Pueblos expected of the Spanish? How do you think the difference between explorer and settler contributed to the different approaches to the native peoples?
On the Coronelli map, read the two accounts of visiting the Jumano (Popole Xumanas).
Discuss as a class: What is are some differences between the two accounts? Which offers a clearer picture of the Jumano? Why do you think the two accounts describe the people so differently? How do you think the difference between missionary and explorer contribute to the different perspectives?
On the Coronelli map, read the entry under el Passo. The letter from Otermin offers an abbreviated description of the Pueblo Revolt.
Discuss as a class: What events in the previous passages offer insight into the causes of the Pueblo Revolt? Why do you think the Pueblo people showed so much anger towards priests and churches?
Activity IV: Putting it All Together
Students choose to take on the role of one of the following persona: Spanish explorer, governor, missionary; Pueblo, Plains (buffalo) tribe, Apache tribe. They should divide into groups.
If students need more information, each group can use the atlas website to research their group during the period of early settlement and the reconquest; students can use a keyword search to turn up specific information; print and read all information for a specific map; follow links to external websites (such as the Office of the State Historian), or access the online books linked to from the bibliography.
Direct the students to list what their needs are, and how they see other groups as fulfilling or denying these needs. Divide the class into groups representing different perspectives, and have each group compile their individual comments or notes. Allow each group a turn to share their perspective.
Have them consider and debate these questions:
Who, if anyone, owns the land and its resources in New Mexico? By what authority?
What benefits would peace between the Spanish & the natives bring?
What does your group need the most? What would your group be willing to give up to get it?
What might give your group an advantage?
A Journey Through New Mexico History, David Lavash
Chapter 6, Spanish Colonial Period
pp 82-99/ to the end of the section on French in the Southwest
A History of New Mexico, Calvin and Susan Roberts
Third Revised Edition
p 103, New Mexico's First Spanish Settlement - p p 133, The Great Missionary Period and the Pueblo Revolt
6TH-8TH GRADE COMMON CORE STANDARDS
Key Ideas and Details:
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
Identify key steps in a text's description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
Craft and Structure:
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author's point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.