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An Atlas of Historic New Mexico Maps, 15501941
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Map which Don Francisco Antonio Marin del Valle, Governor and Captain General of this kingdom of New Mexico, ordered drawn : 1758

Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco was perhaps the most prolific and important cartographer of New Spain. He is the only map maker who warrants an individual chapter in Wheat's monumental and comprehensive, six-volume Mapping the Transpacific West. He was born in Burgos, Spain, 1713, emigrated to the Americas, and settled El Paso in 1743. He served in five military campaigns including the late 1740s attempt by Fra Juan Menchero to resettle the Navajo near Mount Taylor, west of Albuquerque. Miera's later maps bear a striking resemblance to Menchero's map prepared about that time.

In 1749, Miera prepared a map of the Rio Grande from El Paso to its confluence with the Rio Conchos. In 1754, Miera moved to Santa Fe, where Governor Marin del Valle commissioned him to prepare a new map of New Mexico requested by the viceroy in Mexico City. Miera accompanied Governor Marin on a tour of inspection, presumably taking detailed measurements for making his map. This 1758 map became one of the most widely known from the Spanish colonial period. in 1756, Miera was appointed Alcalde Mayor of Galisteo and Pecos.

Atlas Citation: [Eidenbach, Peter]

Map Credits: National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

TIMELINE: LA TIERRA ADENTRO

1696

Don Pedro Rodriguez Cubero becomes governor after De Vargas' term expires.

1699

The Keres who had fled from the pueblos of Cieneguilla, Santo Domingo and Cochiti after the reconquest built a new pueblo on a stream called Cubero. This vast plain in that vicinity is also known as the Cubero Plain and was doubtles so named because of the visit of Cubero at this time; the pueblo was known as San Jose de la Laguna, later Laguna Pueblo.

1700-1701

Hopis from surrounding villages destroy Aguatuvi, a Christianized pueblo.

"In the last days or the year 1700, or in the beginning of 1701, the Moquis of the other pueblos fell upon the unsuspecting village at night. The men were mostly killed, stifled in their estufas, it is said; the women and children were dragged into captivity and the houses were burnt...since that time Ahua-Tuyba has belonged to the class of ruined historic pueblos." (Bandelier)

1703

De Vargas returns, Cubero flees.

1704

De Vargas dies of a sudden illness & is buried in Santa Fe parish church. Don Juan Paez Hurtado becomes interim governor.

1705 Don Francisco Cuervo y Valdez becomes governor, appointed by the viceroy Don Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva Enriquez, Duke of Alburquerque.

1706

Juan de Ulibarri crossed Colorado as far as the Arkansas Valley into Kiowa County.

Governor Cuervo founds San Francisco de Alburquerque with 30 familes, resettles Santa Maria de Galisteo (formerly Santa Cruz de Galisteo) with 14 Tanos families from Tesuque, moves some Tehua families to Pojoaque, resettles Villa de La Cañada with 29 families.

Cuervo is ordered to rename Alburquerque to San Felipe de Alburquerque in honor of King Felipe V.

1707

Cuervo is replaced as governor by Don José Chacon Medina Salazar y Villaseñor, Marqués de la Penula, until 1712.

Governor Chacon rebuilt the chapel at San Miguel, which had been sacked in the 1680 uprising

1712-1715

Governor Chacon is replaced by Don Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollon, who is later indicted of malfeasance while in office, but has by that point disappeared. War with the Navajos, discontent among the pueblos. The Utes & Taos at war.

1715

Captain Félix Martinez appointed by the viceroy to governor, puts Mogollon in jail for two years.

1716

Gov. Martinez brings war against the Moquis, writes on Inscription Rock (El Morro) August 26, 1716.

1717

Martinez unwillingly replaced by Captain Antonio Valverde y Cosio, must be compelled to leave for Mexico City.

1719

Governor Antonio Valverde y Cosio leads a fairly bloody campaign against the Comanches; explores Colorado as far as the Platte River, and explores Kansas. Learns of French/ Pawnee/ Jumano conflict with the Apaches. Ordered by the viceory to establish a presidio in Quartelejo (Cuartelejo) currently Beaver Creek, Scott County, KS to prevent the French from trading with Comanches.

1720

Pedro de Villasu explored Colorado and Nebraska.

1722

Don Juan Domingo de Bustamante sworn in as governor (acts until 1731). A convention of religious and secular leaders investigates causes of lack of settlements between Alburquerque - Chihuahua, and cites both poverty, and persistent attacks by local tribes; the report recommends starting a presidio at with Socorro 50 soldiers and 200 settlers.

1723

An investigation by the Viceroy reveals illegal trade in New Mexico with the French, in violation of the King's order prohibiting trade with French from Louisiana. Gov. Bustamante mandates trade with Plains tribes only in Taos or Pecos.

1727

French take Cuartelejo (in Kansas, see above).

1730

Bishop of Durango Benito Crespo makes a visita to New Mexico.

1731

Governor Bustamante is tried on charges of illegal trade (trading with the French) found guilty, and made to pay the costs of his trial. Charges brought by Padre José Antonio Guerrero against the governor that the the Indians were forced to work without pay.

Fray Juan Miguel Menchero comes to New Mexico as visitador.

Gervasio Cruzat y Góngora succeeds Bustamante. He founds a mission among the Jicarilla and serves until 1736.

1736

Don Enrique de Olavide y Micheleña takes over as governor, serves until 1739.

1737

Bishop of Durango Martin de Elizacochea makes a visita and carves his name on Inscription Rock.

1739

Don Gaspar Domingo de Mendoza becomes governor and serves until 1743.

Some Frenchmen come from Louisiana and settle in a place called Cañada near Isleta; Louis Marie Colons shot for his crimes, Jean d'Alay becomes a barber in Santa Fe, and marries a New Mexican woman. Tomé founded by 30 settlers.

1742

After the Rebellion of 1680, Sandia having been burned by the Spaniards, the inhabitants fled to the Hopi country where they built the village of Payupki. In 1742, during the rule of Codallos y Rabal, these refugees were brought back by the frayles Deglado and Pino. Fray Juan Menchero, affirmed that had had been engaged for six years in missionary work with the Indians and had converted more than three hundred and fifty of them, all of whom he had brought from the Hopi province for the purpose of establishing a pueblo at the place called Sandia. When the new pueblo was established six years later, it was given the name of Nuestra Señora de Dolores de San Antonio de Sandia.

1743

Don Joaquin Codallos y Rabal becomes governor, serves until 1747, Colonel Francisco de la Rocha appointed but declines to serve, Rabal continues until 1749.

1746

Don José de Escandón explores and settles Rio Grande with seven detachments of soldiers, establishes towns.

Father Juan M. Menchero founds a short-lived settlement of 400- 500 Navajo, at Cebolleta (date is also listed as 1749).

"All went well for a brief time, but in the spring of 1750 there was trouble, which Lieutenant-Governor Bernardo Antonio de Bustamante, with the vice-custodio, Padre Manuel de San Juan Nepomuceno de Trigo, went to investigate. Then the real state of affairs became apparent. Padre Menchero had been liberal with his gifts, and still more so with promises of more; hence his success in bringing Navajós to Cebolleta. But they said they had not received half the gifts promised, and their present padres-- against whom they had no complaint-- were too poor to make any gifts at all." (Bancroft)

1747

Fr. Menchero travels New Mexico as visitador; on his tour he turns west from Jornada del Muerto, as far as the Gila, then north to Acoma. Don Bernardo Miera y Pacheco serves with Menchero. Thirty-three Frenchmen come to Rio de Jicarilla & sell firearms to the Comanches.

1749

Nuesta Señora de Santa Ana de Camargo (modern Camargo, Tamaulipas, west of McAllen, TX) founded at the confluence of Rio San Juan & Rio Grande.

Don Tomás Velez Cachupin takes over as governor, serves until 1754.

Miera y Pacheco maps area around El Paso, down to La Junta del Rios.

1751

Governor Cachupin battles against the Comanches, gets a commendation from the Viceroy.

1755

Villa of Laredo founded.

1757

Don Bernardo Miera y Pacheco would accompany Gov Marín on his official tour of inspection and, at the governor's expense, he would map the entire province. From late June until December 1, 1757, they were in the field. By the end of April 1758, Miera's elaborate map was ready.

1759

Presidio built at Junta de los Rios ( Texas).

1760

Governor Cachupin retires, mired in opposition by the Franciscans.

Don Francisco Antonio Marin del Valle succeeds him.

Bishop Tamarón of Durango makes a visita, and laments the state of affairs at the Pueblo missions, particularly that the priests could not speak the native languages and the Puebloans could not speak enough Spanish to understand the doctrinal teachings.

Del Valle succeeded late in the year by Don Manuel Portillo Urrisola who governed until 1762.

1762

Governor Urrisola replaced by Cachupin again.

Cachupin makes search for mines into the Gunnison area of Colorado.

1765

Manuel de Rivera explored along what is now the Old Spanish Trail as far north as Delta, Colorado.

1767

Captain Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta, knight of Santiago succeeds Cachupin as governor. He asks for a presidio in Taos, and establishes a presidio at Robledo, consisting of 30 soldiers from Santa Fe.

1768-1776

Father Francisco Tomás Garcés explored Arizona, California, and the areas surrounding the Gila and Colorado rivers, While exploring the western Grand Canyon, he met the Hopi people and the Havasupai people . From 1768 to 1776, Father Garces explored with Juan Bautista de Anza and alone with native guides.

1775

Juan Bautista de Anza and Francisco Tomás Garcés explored a route from the presido of Tubac, Arizona, where de Anza was commander, overland to California. De Anza aalso founded the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Jose.

1776 -1777

Fathers Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Domínguez along with 12 other men, form an expedition to attempt a route to Monterey from Santa Fe. They travel into Colorado, discover and name the Dolores River, north to Rangeley CO, then west into Utah, across the Wasatch Mountains through Spanish Fork Canyon, and to Utah Lake. That winter they traveled south as far as Cedar City before returning to Santa Fe, crossing the Colorado River en route. They were the first Europeans in what is now Utah.

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